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MODALS

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MODALS

¨May

¨Might

¨Can

¨Could

¨Should

¨Must

Ought to

¨Would

¨Have to

¨Used to

¨Dare

¨Lest

¨  May

May is used to express

  • A possibility
  • A permission
  • Good wishes

 

Examples:

  • May I come in? (Permission)
  • I may go to Indore. (Possibility)
  • May I meet you? (Permission)
  • May you long live. (A good wish)
  • I may not come today.
  • It may rain.
  • May I come with you?
  • May I wait for him in the cabin?
  • He may not be well.
  • He may be here soon.
  • May you prosper.

 

¨  Might

Might is used to express a weak possibility.

 

Examples:

  • I may go to Indore. (a strong possibility)
  •  I might go to Indore. ( a weak possibility)

 

¨  Can

Can is used to express a capability.

 

Examples:

  • I can speak English. ( I am capable of speaking English)
  • I cannot speak English. (I am not capable of speaking English)
  • Can you speak English? (Are you capable of speaking English?)
  •  She can do anything.
  • I cannot top the university.
  • Can you lift the bag?

 

 

 

 

¨  Could

It is the past equivalent of can.

 

Examples:

  • I could help him.
  • I could not help him. 
  • I could not meet him.
  • With your guidance, I could pass my exam.
  •  He could not contact me as my mobile was switched off.

 

  • Could is also used to ask for some help

Examples:

  • Could you help me?

 

¨  Should

It is used to give a friendly suggestion. It is also used to express a moral obligation.

 

Examples:

  • You should go to a doctor.
  • He should work hard.
  • We should respect elders.
  • Should I go there?

 

It is used with past participles as well.

Examples:

  • I should have helped him.(You did not help.)
  • You should have obeyed your father. (You did not obey.)

 

¨  Must (stronger than should)

It is used to express compulsion and strong moral obligations.

 

 

Examples:

  • You must go to a doctor.
  • We must help them.
  • You must not talk to him.
  • We must keep our promise.

 

 

 

¨  Ought to

  • It is used to express desirability, and duties.

 

Examples:

  •  We ought to follow the traffic rules.(It is our duty to follow the traffic rules.)
  •  I ought to visit my sister tomorrow.
  • You ought to get better marks.
  • Everybody ought to love his country.
  • You ought not to behave rudely.

 

¨  Would

It is used

  • In imaginary sentences.
  • To know about somebody’s likings.
  • To tell somebody about our likings.
  • To make a request.
  • To express a past habit.

 

Examples:

 

  • Would you like to take some coffee?
  • Would you like to meet him?
  • Would you like to visit the upper lake?
  • I would like to meet you.
  • She would not like to talk to me.
  • Would you please open the window?(A request)
  • Would you please give us some discount? (A request)
  • When I was a child, I would play cricket. (A past habit)
  • When she was in school, she would work very hard.(A past habit)

 

¨   

¨  Has to/Have to (Present)

It is used to express an intention.

Examples:

 

  • I have to go.
  • She has to go.
  • They have to take your interview.

 

 

 

It is also used to express a compulsion.

Examples:

 

  • I have to go to school in the morning.
  • She has to wash the utensils.

 

¨  Has/Have to (Past)

It is used to express compulsions and intentions.

Has/have to = had to.

 

             Examples:

 

  • I had to go.
  • I had to pay Rs. 200 as a fine.

 

¨  Has/Have to (Future)

Has/Have to= will have to (For intentions and compulsions)

 

Examples:

  • You will have to go.

 

¨  Used to

It is used to express past habits.

 

               Examples

  • I used to smoke= I would smoke.

o   Used to= would.

  • My father used to teach mathematics. (earlier)

 

  • My father did not use to teach mathematics. (earlier)

 

 

¨  Dare

Dare is used to throw a challenge or question somebody’s courage. Dare is a helping verb as well as  main verb.

 

  • Dare as a helping verb

Examples:

  • I dare (as a helping verb) not do this.
  • She dare (as a helping verb) not talk. (she dare not talks would be incorrect)
  • Dare he do that?

 

  • Dare as a main verb

 

Example:

  • Does she dare to (may or may not come) speak?
  • Do not dare (main verb) to touch that.
  • He did not dare to come here.
  • Did he dare?
  • How dare you?
  • How dare you come here?

 

¨  Let

It is used with “ Us”.

 

Examples:

  • Let’s go there = Let us go there.
  • Let’s not go there.
  • Let’s talk.
  • Let’s go for a walk.
  • Let’s watch a movie.
  • Let’s not waste time.

 

  • Let is also used when we request somebody to allow us or somebody else to do something.

 

Formulas:

¨  Let + Sub (noun) + Verb 1.

¨  Do not + Let + Sub (noun) + V 1st

 

Examples:

  • Let me go. (Allow me to go.)
  • Let Him study.
  • Do not let him go.
  • Let them work.

 

        While using let

 

  • “I ”becomes me.
  • “You” remains you.
  • “They” becomes them.
  • “He”  becomes him.
  • “She” becomes her.
  • “We” becomes us.  

 

  • Let (as a main verb in Tenses)

 

Examples:

 

  • She lets (main verb) me study. ( Present Simple)
  • She does not let (main Verb) me study. (She does not allow me to study.)
  • He is not letting (main) me go.
  • He has let (main verb) him sleep.
  • He let (main verb) her speak.
  • He did not let her speak.
  • My father did not let me come. He will not let me come.
  • I will let you study.
  • I will not let you study.

 

¨  About to

It is used when something is going to happen.

 

Formulas:

  • Sub + is/am/are+ about to + V 1st + obj.
  • Sub + Was/were+ about to + V 1st + obj. (Past)

               Examples:

  • I am about to join a company. (I am joining a company.)
  • It is about to rain.
  • He was about to resign.

 

¨  Lest

Formulas:

¨  Instruction + lest + Sub+ should + V 1st

Examples:

  • Walk slowly, lest you should slip. (You may not slip)
  • Work hard, lest you should fail.
  • Call me before going, lest you should lose the way.

 

¨  Please fill in the most appropriate modal among following.

May, might, can, could, should, must, ought to, would, have to, used to, dare, let, about to, lest

  1. There are clouds in the sky. Soon, it……………………………rain.
  2. We……………………….obey our parents.
  3. Drive carefully,………………………..you should meet an accident.
  4. I………………….just get selected in the team.
  5. If I were you, I………………………apologize to him.
  6. You…………………….apologize to your parents.
  7. He was afraid of. He did not…………………come again.
  8. I was late because he did not………………….me use his car.
  9. You ………………………………because there is no other option.
  10. Are you sure, you……………………….carry this bag?
  11. Sorry I………………………..not convey your message as he came late.
  12. When my father was twenty, he…………………………play badminton.
  13. My exams are……………………..get over.
  14. We………………………..follow traffic rules.

 

Fill in the blanks with the options given.

  1. ………………………I open the window?
  2. Will
  3. May
  4. Have
  5. Must

 

  1. ………………we play in the garden?
  2. Should
  3. Will
  4. Have
  5. Must

 

 

  1. We ……………………to love our country.
  2. Will
  3. May
  4. Have
  5. Ought

 

  1. We ………………….not to walk on the grass.
  2. Will
  3. May
  4. Have
  5. Must

 

  1. He ………………not write in English.
  2. Can
  3. Let
  4. Have
  5. Might

 

  1. We …………………..not to spit on the floor.
  2. Will
  3. May
  4. Have
  5. Ought

 

  1. I am late because he did not……………me come on time.
  2. Has
  3. May
  4. Let
  5. Must

 

  1. How………….you enter my room?
  2. Dare
  3. May
  4. Have
  5. Must
  6. …………………….you please tell your name?
  7. Will
  8. Would
  9. Have
  10. May

 

  1. They…………………..to do their work every day.
  2. Will
  3. May
  4. Have
  5. Dare

 

  1. When she studied Law, she………………………. to take tuitions.
  2. Will
  3. May
  4. Have
  5. Used

 

  1. I tried but………………..not.
  2. Can
  3. May
  4. Could
  5. Must

 

  1. Sometimes the boys…………………..play trick on their teachers.
  2. Will
  3. Could
  4. Would
  5. Ought to

 

  1. Do not look up, …………………you should fall.
  2. Will
  3. May
  4. Have
  5. Must

 

  1. You ……………………not answer more than two.
  2. Will
  3. would
  4. Have
  5. Must

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